History and Heritage of Gilgit Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan is a region in northern Pakistan, located at the border with China and Afghanistan. The region has a rich and complex history that spans thousands of years. The earliest known human settlements in Gilgit-Baltistan date back to the Neolithic period, around 5000 BCE. The region has been home to several ancient civilizations, including the Dardic people, the Indo-Aryans, and the Tibetan Empire. The area was also part of the Silk Road trade network, connecting China and Central Asia with South Asia and the Middle East.
In the 7th century CE, Islam arrived in the region with the Arab conquests, and the area became part of the Islamic caliphate. Later, the region was ruled by various local rulers, including the Maqpon dynasty in Gilgit and the Amacha dynasty in Baltistan. During the 19th century, the region was part of the Dogra Empire, a princely state in the Indian subcontinent that was controlled by the Dogra Rajputs. The British also had a significant influence in the region, as they used it as a buffer zone between their Indian Empire and the Russian Empire. After the partition of India in 1947, Gilgit-Baltistan became part of the newly created state of Pakistan. However, the region did not have a formal constitutional status, and its governance was controlled by the federal government in Islamabad.
In 2009, the government of Pakistan granted Gilgit-Baltistan a limited degree of autonomy, and the region was officially recognized as a separate administrative unit. However, the region still does not have a full-fledged provincial status, and its constitutional status remains a matter of debate and controversy.
Heritage of Gilgit Baltistan:
It has a rich cultural and historical heritage that spans thousands of years. The region is known for its diverse ethnic and linguistic groups, including Shina, Burusho, Wakhi, and Balti.
Some of the notable aspects of the cultural heritage of Gilgit-Baltistan include:
- Rock carvings and petroglyphs: The region is home to several rock carvings and petroglyphs that date back to the Neolithic and Bronze ages. These carvings depict various aspects of life, including hunting, dancing, and religious practices. Rock carvings and petroglyphs are images that have been carved or pecked into rock surfaces. They can depict a wide range of subjects, from animals and plants to human figures and geometric shapes. In Gilgit Baltistan, the most common subjects depicted in rock art are ibex, hunting scenes, religious symbols, and human figures. One of the most famous sites of rock art in Gilgit Baltistan is the Hunza Valley. The area is home to over 2,000 petroglyphs, some of which date back to the Bronze Age. Many of these carvings are located in hard-to-reach places, suggesting that they were created for ritual or ceremonial purposes.
- Architecture: Gilgit Baltistan is known for its unique architecture, which is a blend of local and external influences. The traditional houses in Gilgit-Baltistan are made of wood, stone, and mud, with intricate carvings and designs. The architecture of Gilgit-Baltistan is characterized by the use of locally available materials, such as stone, timber, mud, and clay, and a unique style that is adapted to the harsh climate and topography of the region. The region has a rich architectural heritage that dates back to the pre-Islamic era, and many of the historic buildings and monuments in Gilgit-Baltistan are a blend of local, Central Asian, and Persian architectural styles. In recent years, there has been a trend towards modernizing the architecture in Gilgit-Baltistan, with the construction of new buildings that incorporate traditional design elements with modern materials and techniques. However, there is also a growing awareness of the need to preserve and protect the region’s rich architectural heritage, and many efforts are being made to conserve and restore historic buildings and monuments in Gilgit-Baltistan.
- Music and dance: One of the most popular music genres in Gilgit-Baltistan is “folk music,” which includes songs and dance forms that are specific to the region. Folk music is performed at weddings, religious festivals, and other cultural events. The most popular instruments used in this genre are the sitar, dhol, and rubab. Additionally, the region is known for its traditional singing style, which involves a high-pitched, nasal voice. Dance is another essential aspect of Gilgit-Baltistan’s cultural heritage, with various dance forms representing the region’s diverse ethnic groups. The most popular dance forms include the “Shina dance,” “Balti dance,” and “Burusho dance,” each with its unique style and costumes. These dances are usually performed at festivals and other cultural events, and their rhythmic movements are accompanied by traditional music.
- Languages: Some of the major languages spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan include:
- Shina: It is the most widely spoken language in Gilgit-Baltistan, and it is spoken by around 50% of the population. It is an Indo-Aryan language and is also spoken in parts of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
- Balti: It is another major language spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan, and it is spoken by around 20% of the population. It is a Tibetic language and is also spoken in parts of India’s Ladakh region.
- Brushaski: It is spoken by around 5% of the population in Gilgit-Baltistan. It is an isolated language and is not related to any other language in the region.
- Wakhi: It is spoken by the Wakhi community in the upper Hunza valley and is closely related to the Pamir languages of Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
- Khowar: It is spoken in the Chitral district of Gilgit-Baltistan and is also spoken in parts of Afghanistan.
Other languages spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan include Urdu, English, and Pashto, which are widely spoken throughout Pakistan.
- Religion: The region has a diverse religious heritage, with Islam, Buddhism, and animism being the major religions. It is home to several ancient Buddhist sites, including the Alchi Monastery. The cultural and historical heritage of Gilgit-Baltistan is a testament to the region’s rich and diverse past.